1. Inappropriate relationships
These relationships usually involve one perpetrator who has inappropriate power or control over a young person due to being physically stronger, older or wealthier. This can include familial abuse, which includes when an older family member exploits their child or sibling.
The older relative may be vulnerable to CSE due to mental health problems, drug or alcohol dependency or previous experience of exploitation. Sometimes the relative may be forced or threatened into involving the young person in exploitation by someone else.
2. Older adult exploitation – often referred to as the ‘boyfriend’ model
The adult offender of CSE is usually at least five years older and befriends and grooms the young person by focusing on their vulnerabilities. The victim will initially feel they are in a positive and rewarding relationship with the perpetrator.
Power and control issues can lead to young people being isolated and becoming dependent on the ‘boyfriend’. They are often coerced or forced into sex with the perpetrator’s associates.
Young people are passed by perpetrators through networks, between towns and cities, where they may be forced or coerced into sexual activity with multiple people.
Young people are often used to recruit other young people to take part in so-called ‘sex parties’ where this can occur.
Trafficking sometimes involves the ‘buying and selling’ of young people by individuals involved in serious organised crime.
This is often referred to as sexual bullying. This form of CSE can happen quickly without the build-up of a relationship or the grooming process. Incidents may be filmed on mobile phones and circulated. Incidents may occur publicly or involve multiple perpetrators.
Over a quarter (28%) of perpetrators identified to the Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s Inquiry into Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups were under 19 years of age.
5. Gang and group exploitation
Young people in gangs or groups may be sexually exploited as part of gang initiation or as punishment. Young people may also be encouraged to recruit peers into the gang, exposing them to similar treatment of CSE and making it difficult to identify perpetrators who control the gang.